Electron binding energies in eV for the elements in their natural forms
Values compiled by Gwyn Williams.
The energies are given relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H, N, O, F, and Cl diatomic molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Values are take from J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, (1967) p.125, except values marked '*' are from M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978) with additional corrections, and values marked with '+' are from J. C. Fuggle and N. M?rtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 21, (1980) p.275.
Notes: (a) One-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime. (b) Values derived from Bearden and Burr.
Summary by 李晓霞 on 2003-02-19
Last updated by 李晓霞 on 2003-02-19