ChIN简介页:美国标准与技术研究院NIST
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美国标准与技术研究院NIST

【URL】 http://www.nist.gov/

【简介】
     The National Institute of Standards and Technology is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce's Technology Administration. Established in 1901,* NIST strengthens the U.S. economy and improves the quality of life by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards. It carries out this mission through a portfolio of four major programs: Measurements and Standards Laboratories, Advanced Technology Program, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, and Baldrige National Quality Award.

NIST has an annual budget of about $800 million, employs about 3,330 people, and operates primarily in two locations Gaithersburg, Md., and Boulder, Colo.

R&D/Innovation

The FY 1999 federal budget of $1.73 trillion included $79.3 billion for R&D; of that, $38.1 billion is for non-defense R&D. Basic research funding in FY 1998 was $15.7 billion. (AAAS)

In 1997, funds from all sources expended on R&D in the United States were estimated at $206 billion. Nearly two-thirds (65 percent) of US R&D is supported by industrial firms with their own company funds. Most of the balance (31 percent) is supported by the federal government. Colleges and universities, other non-profit institutions, and state and local governments provide the remainder. (AAAS)

Sixty percent of R&D performed by universities is funded by the federal government, with most of the rest coming from the institution's own funds. (AAAS)

NIST Measurement and Standards Laboratories - further the technical aims and capabilities of US industry and serve as an impartial source of expertise, developing highly leveraged measurement capabilities and other infrastructural technologies. The Measurement and Standards Laboratories also serve as the ultimate U.S. reference point for measurements with counterpart organizations throughout the world providing companies, entire industries, and the whole science and technology community with the equivalent of a common language needed at nearly every stage of a technical activity.

NIST laboratories provide standards-related information and assistance to about 20,000 organizations and individuals every year. (NIST)
NIST laboratories provide more than 500 different calibrations, special tests, and measurement assurance programs. Ranging from calibrations of gage blocks and thermocouples to tests of form-fitting software used to coordinate measuring machines, these services underpin a measurement transfer system critical to manufacturing and assembly processes. (NIST)
The calibrations performed on over 3,500 instruments by NIST laboratories each year provide quality assurance for a large private-sector activity that disseminates transfer standards traceable to national and international measurement systems. (NIST)

NIST laboratories maintain more than 1,300 different Standard Reference Materials (SRMs)—equivalents of certified "rulers" that companies, government agencies, and others use to check the accuracy of the most exacting measurements. These SRMs broadly support the private-sector market in secondary reference materials used by businesses, laboratories, and other organizations to certify their measurements and assure the quality of their products. About 350 SRMs support motor vehicle production at nearly every step of the process, from manufacture of sheet metal, windshields, tires, and transmission gears to final assembly. (NIST)

In FY1999, NIST participated in 261 Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) on collaborative R&D efforts of mutual interest with for-profit organizations, non-profit organizations (including universities), public and private foundations, state and local governments, and individuals. Since 1988, NIST has signed nearly 900 CRADAs. (NIST)

Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) - is a nationwide network of services to assist smaller manufacturers in becoming globally competitive. MEP leverages federal support by teaming up with state and local organizations. Services are locally driven so that they address the specific needs of area manufacturers.

Small manufacturers—those with fewer than 500 employees—employ 1 in 10 American workers directly, or over 12 million workers. (Employment and Earnings, BLS 1-99)

In 1997, manufacturing hourly wages averaged $13.17, 12 percent higher than the average in all service industries and 58 percent more than retail employees. (BLS)

The nation's more than 385,000 small manufacturing enterprises produce 55 percent of all value added in manufacturing and account for nearly 98 percent of all manufacturing establishments. (1996 County Business Patterns and 1992 Census of Manufactures)

On average, each $1 million in final sales in manufacturing is associated with 13.6 jobs in manufacturing—both the jobs to produce the final product and the intermediate products that go into it—and 8.4 jobs in other sectors, such as raw materials and services. (National Association of Manufacturers)

A manufacturing sale of $1 results in a total increase of output throughout the economy of $2.30, while a service sale of $1 adds $1.62. (National Association of Manufacturers)

More than 2,000 manufacturing specialists and professional staff assist smaller U.S. manufacturers through more than 400 MEP-affiliated centers and offices serving all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. (NIST - MEP)

An independent follow-up survey was conducted on 4,551 MEP clients with project completion dates in 1998. These companies reported an increase in revenues of $294 million and showed savings of $20 million in inventory and over $29 million in labor and material. They also invested $291 million in modernization. These companies attribute these benefits to the services provided by the NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership. (NIST - MEP)

Advanced Technology Program (ATP) - was created to foster economic growth through the development of innovative technologies. Through partnerships with the private sector, ATP's early stage investment is accelerating the development of high-risk, broadly enabling technologies and helping to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the marketplace.

Through 1999, ATP selected 468 projects with over 1,000 participants. More than 56 percent of ATP projects are led by small businesses. In addition, more than 140 different colleges and universities have participated in ATP projects. (NIST)

ATP projects awarded through 1999 involve funding commitments totaling $3 billion, with cost-sharing of $1.5 billion from the private sector and $1.5 billion from NIST. (NIST)

ATP has conducted 40 competitions from 1990 to 1999. (NIST)
A detailed examination of the first 38 completed ATP projects found that:
For 24 of the 38 completed projects, a new product or service is on the market, or a new process is being used to improve the quality or reduce the cost of an existing product or service. (Long, 1999)
A comprehensive study (12/97) of more than 200 ATP projects funded from 1993 to 1995 concluded:

The companies surveyed have identified more than 1,000 potential applications of the ATP-supported technologies and have developed commercialization plans for nearly 800 of those.
29 percent of the resultant applications are expected to have performance improvements of 100 percent to 500 percent or more, providing evidence that industry is pursuing "discontinuous" or "breakthrough" innovations—suggesting relatively high-risk R&D. (NIST)

Baldrige National Quality Program - was established by Congress to recognize individual U.S. companies for their achievement and to provide quality awareness and information on successful performance and competitiveness strategies. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award has become the nation's premier award for performance excellence and quality achievement. In 1999, it expanded to educational organizations and health care providers.

A July 1998 survey of CEOs found that 79 percent believe the Baldrige criteria and awards are extremely or very valuable in stimulating quality improvements in U.S. companies, and 67 percent believe the criteria and awards are extremely or very valuable in stimulating improvements in the competitiveness of U.S. business. (Louis Harris)

With an annual federal investment of only about $5 million, the Baldrige program leverages a contribution of over $100 million from the private sector and state and local governments. (NIST)

Collectively, Baldrige Award recipients, examiners, and NIST staff have given approximately 50,000 presentations at conferences worldwide. (NIST)
In 1998, for the fifth year in a row, the hypothetical "Baldrige Index," made up of publicly traded U.S. companies that have received the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, outperformed the Standard & Poor's 500, this time by more than 200 percent. (NIST "invested" a hypothetical $1,000 in each of the six whole company winners of the award and investments were tracked from the first business day of the month following the announcement of award recipients [or the date they began public trading] to Dec. 1, 1998. Adjustments were made for stock splits. Another $1,000 was hypothetically invested in the S&P 500 at the same time. NIST found that the group of six outperformed the S&P 500 by more than 2.6 to 1, achieving a 460 percent return on investment compared to a 175 percent return for the S&P 500.) (NIST)

State and local quality programs—most modeled after the Baldrige program—have increased from fewer than 10 in 1991 to 55 in 1999. Forty-three states currently have programs. (NIST)

Since 1991, when 111 applications were received, applications for state quality awards have grown dramatically. In 1998, state programs received 830 applications. (NIST)

Internationally, nearly 60 quality programs are in operation. Most are modeled after the Baldrige program, including one established in Japan in 1996. (NIST)

More than 1.7 million copies of the Criteria for Performance Excellence have been distributed. That does not include the copies that are available in books and from state and local award programs or downloaded from the World Wide Web. (NIST)

【相关链接】
  NIST Chemistry WebBook
  NIST Ceramics WebBook (NIST的陶瓷数据库)
  数学函数数字图书馆Digital Library of Mathematical Functions
  NIST的数学应用资源
  Chemical Science & Technology Laboratory of National Institute of Standards and Technology (美国标准与技术研究院化学科学和技术实验室)
  NIST Physics Laboratory (美国标准与技术研究院物理实验室)
  NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (化学动力学数据库, 气相反应)
  多环芳烃结构索引(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Structure Index, NIST)
  NIST/EPA/NIH质谱库
  美国NIST热力学研究中心Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC), NIST
  检索NIST数据库系列(NIST Data Gateway)
  Electron Interactions with Plasma Processing Gases (半导体设备等离子处理所用气体的电子碰撞数据)
  National Standards Systems Network (国家标准系统网NSSN)
  Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, 德国标准计量机构)
  Federation of Materials Societies (材料学会联合会FMS)
  NIST虚拟图书馆(NIST Virtual Library)


Summary by 李晓霞 on 2000-09-14

Last updated by 李晓霞 on 2003-01-07

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